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Basics of design is the basis of the entire visual environment. From fine arts to modern web design. Even small details such as fonts make up the majority of compositions. What do all these examples have in common? These are the most basic elements, including lines, shapes, textures and balance. They don’t seem like anything in isolation, but together they create a composition – part of what we see and understand.

The line

Fortunately, there are many things that can teach you all the elements from scratch. The most basic element of all is the lines. A line is a part of a line that connects two or more points. It can be thick, thin or zigzagged.

The line is often found in the design. For example, in drawings and illustrations, graphic elements such as texture and models. Also, lines are very common in text compositions, where they can highlight, separate and organize content. Lines can guide the viewer’s eyes.

When working with lines, pay special attention to their thickness, color, texture and style. These small details can make a big difference to the way your design will be perceived.

Take a look at how the lines hide in the most visible place, such as in the text. By changing the direction of these lines, you can get completely different results.


A figure is any two-dimensional area with recognizable boundaries, including a circle, square, triangle, and so on. Figures are divided into two main categories: geometric (ordinary) and organic (shapeless). This is a very important part of visual communication. They make images important and recognizable. We understand signs, symbols on the street, and even abstract art, to a greater extent, thanks to the shapes.

Shapes and shapes occupy a certain place in the design. They help to compose and share content, create simple illustrations, or simply add something interesting to your work. Figures are very important because they form the basis of a large number of things. Learn to look for them in different designs and soon you will notice them everywhere.


When a figure becomes three-dimensional, we call it “Form”. Shapes can be three-dimensional and exist in the real world, or they can be modeled using techniques such as light, shadow and perspective to create the illusion of depth. In three-dimensional design, form makes realism possible.

In everyday things, form fulfills the same purpose, but on a smaller scale. A simple shadow can create the illusion of layers or give the object a sense of place. Basic shapes can add a touch of realism to your work. It is a very powerful tool if you use it to the extent possible.


Texture is a physical property of the surface. Like shape, it can be three-dimensional, what you can see and touch, or it can be simulated as it could look in the real world. In texture design, it adds depth and tactility to flat images. This makes objects look smooth, rough, hard or soft. It all depends on which elements are involved.

Textures help to create a great background image and give the project an interesting look. If you look closely, you can see the texture even in the most unexpected things: dirty fonts or glossy, shiny icons. Just be careful not to overdo it, a lot of textures in the design can look too banal and tasteless.


Balance is a uniform distribution of visual objects. This is how one of the objects attracts the viewer’s eye. Balance can be affected by many factors, including color, size, quantity and space between objects.

Mastering balance can be difficult for beginners because it requires a little intuition. Fortunately, there are many examples in the design world that can help you to understand the difference between the different principles of balance.

Symmetrical design is equally composed on both sides of the axis. It looks balanced because each side is the same or identical. The asymmetrical design looks different, but the components are still evenly distributed.

Coordinating points of the image are located either on one of these lines, or near them, creating a visual balance of the remaining places. We are attracted to the image made in this technique, because, according to research, the human eye naturally follows this pattern when viewing the design of the composition.

In its essence, design teaches to see the full picture of things. It is the ability to evaluate many small details that make up each composition. These principles, you can use in any kind of project, whether you create a graphics or just looking for simple ways to visually highlight your work.